The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. The legal dispute over benzene in soft drinks occurred about six months after a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scientist told BeverageDaily.com that benzene was still appearing in … The .gov means it’s official.Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Benzene is found in crude oil and is a major part of gasoline. (viii)Consider removing, reducing, or replacing ascorbates with other antioxidants. Benzene is primarily used as a feedstock, or raw material, to make other industrial chemicals, such as ethylbenzene, cumene and cyclohexane. It evaporates quickly when exposed to air. Benzene and benzene-based molecules are part of many popular medications used to relieve pain, alleviate cold and flu symptoms, and as a weight-loss aid. A solution of benzoic acid contains dissolved and undissolved molecules in equilibrium. Hence, the industry concentrates its efforts to reduce the formation of benzene on nonalcoholic beverages containing ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate [17]. Benzene is produced naturally by volcanoes and forest fires. Wu, H. Lin, W. Fan, J.-J. Benzene is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 human carcinogen [3]. As the pH decreases, the equilibrium shifts towards undissolved benzoic acid [26]. Benzene is a chemical that is released into the air from emissions from automobiles and burning coal and oil. Analysis of more than 50 foods, including eggs, by purge-and-trap/static headspace concentration and capillary gas chromatography showed that foods without added benzoates had less than 2 ng/g of benzene. Benzaldehyde is one of the world’s most widely used food flavourings. (ii)Sugars may reduce benzene formation but do not inhibit it completely. However, there are still several benzoic acid hazards to consider, especially when this compound becomes a regular part of your diet. From the data presented in the literature and presented here, we conclude that benzene is a chemical hazard in food, although oral exposure is negligible compared to environmental exposure. Extrinsic factors such as temperature, UV radiation, and storage time were also investigated. (v)When acidity is low, ascorbic acid together with sources of benzoic acid is very likely to produce benzene. Anemia-This experiment is undergo to determine and quantify the benzene content in beverages rather the amount … It is basically a type of salt that is, mostly, chemically prepared to preserve a variety of food products from bacteria, yeast and fungi growth. D. W. Lachenmeier, N. Steinbrenner, S. Löbell-Behrends, H. Reusch, and T. Kuballa, “Benzene contamination in heat-treated carrot products including baby foods,”, Q. Yang, Y. Guo, L. Wang, S. Liang, and X. Liu, “Simultaneous determination of trace benzene and toluene in beverage by ultrasound-enhanced hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction coupled with GC,”, G. Bonaccorsi, A. Perico, A. Colzi et al., “Benzene in soft drinks: a study in Florence (Italy),”, I. Techakriengkrai and C. Lertborwornwong, “The analysis of benzene contaminant in Thai commercial non-alcoholic beverages by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry,”. This benzene compound is used for polyester synthetic fiber material. Benzene (C6H6, CAS number 71-43-2) is an aromatic hydrocarbon widely used as a solvent in chemical laboratories and as an intermediate in the chemical industry for manufacturing of polymers and other products [1]. Lachenmeier et al. This suggests that both ascorbic acide and its degradation products may induce peroxide formation in the presence of metal ions and oxygen, generating hydroxyl radicals that attack benzoate, yielding benzene [9]. HEXPOC, “Human Exposure Characterization of chemical substancessubstances; quantification of exposure routes,” 2005. Benzene: A sweet smelling, highly toxic hydrocarbon. In work by Morsi et al. Benzene is a common industrial chemical used in manufacturing plastics and some types of rubbers, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. Benzene may be introduced in foods during processing, in processes like smoking, roasting, and ionizingradiation[ ].Notmuchinformationisavailableon smoking, except for a study that found benzene concentra- tions of and parts per billion (ppb) in smoked meats [, ]. … This article contains information about the occurrence of benzene in the environment and the sources of exposure to this compound. Around the turn of the 20th century, benzene was also used to decaffeinate coffee. Nyman et al.’s study [49] showed contents of beverages benzene above 5 ng/g were reformulated by the manufacturer. mechanisms in food and beverages, occurrence, and miti-gation measures as well as data analysis of benzene in food (mainly nonalcoholic beverages) to investigate the potential risk of benzene exposure through oral ingestion. Transition metals such as the ones mentioned above may catalyze the transfer of one electron from ascorbic acid to oxygen, producing the anion superoxide, which then undergoes spontaneous dismutation producing hydrogen peroxide. In 1965, Matthews and Sangster [28] found that irradiation of an aqueous solution of sodium benzoate causes hydroxyl radicals to attack benzoate ions forming unstable benzoic acid radicals which easily lose the carbon dioxide attached to the aromatic ring to form benzene. Sodium benzoate is a widespread food preservative that is found in a number of food products. It is also found in crude oil, petrol and cigarette smoke. Casado et al. We often talk about a lot of substances that are dangerous to our health--ones that may be found at home, in the workplace, or in nature. Some other uses of Benzene include making plastics, synthetic fibres, rubber lubricants, dyes, resins, detergents, drugs and more. Benzene is a parent hydrocarbon of all aromatic compounds. Benzene in foods may form when the amino acid phenylalanine is broken down by ionizing radiation [19, 20]. In homes, Benzene is used in glue, adhesive, cleaning products, tobacco smoke, etc. It is an important industrial chemical and a precursor in the production of other chemicals, plastics, synthetic rubber, dyes, etc. [18] used aqueous models containing 0.025% ascorbic acid and 0.04% sodium benzoate, the same concentrations used in processed beverages, to study the effect of temperature and UV on benzene formation. These data corroborate McNeal et al. The most important guidelines involve replacing ascorbic acid by another antioxidant, adding EDTA or sodium polyphosphates to chelate the metalic ions that catalyze hydroxyl radical formation, and reviewing the storage conditions and shelf life to minimize product exposure to high temperatures and ultraviolet (UV) light [10]. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. establishing a maximum acceptable benzene content of 5 ppb [16]. Raw carbon dioxide may be contaminated—the limit is 20 ppm of benzene (v/v). Benzene is formed from natural processes, such as volcanoes and forest fires, but most exposure to benzene results from human activities. The largest source of benzene to households in the above-mentioned populations is natural gas development and petroleum refining. As a solvent McNeal et al. Measured and predicted environmental concentrations were used to estimate the accumulation of benzene in the food chain and the subsequent extent of human exposure from inhalation and ingestion. Benzoic acid is a derivative of benzene, also known as sodium benzoate or the salt of benzoic acid. This is of many Uses of benzene in everyday life. Six samples of beer have been contaminated with benzene through the use of contaminated carbon dioxide during carbonation [22]. All of the reformulated products were found to contain 1.1 ng/g benzene or less. Benzene definition, a colorless, volatile, flammable, toxic, slightly water-soluble, liquid, aromatic compound, C6H6, obtained chiefly from coal tar: used in the manufacture of commercial and medicinal chemicals, dyes, and as a solvent for resins, fats, or the like. It is difficult to assess accurately human dietary exposure to benzene because benzene concentration in foods varies greatly [35]. (vi)Coloring agents and flavors may contain ascorbates. The presence of benzene has been reported in various food/beverage substances with soft drinks often reported in the literature. In high concentrations, antioxidants may become a prooxidant and promote benzoate decarboxilation. D. W. Lachenmeier, T. Kuballa, H. Reusch, C. Sproll, M. Kersting, and U. Alexy, “Benzene in infant carrot juice: further insight into formation mechanism and risk assessment including consumption data from the DONALD study,”. [30] studied pickled green olives, cucumbers, and caper berries containing ascorbic and benzoic acids under three experimental conditions to determine the chemical and sensory changes induced by these additives: (0) without additives; (1) with sodium benzoate; and (2) with sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid. These authors believe that the amounts of benzene found in foods and beverages are too low to cause problems but emphasized that more studies are needed. Its molecular weight is 291g/mol. The following is a list of products containing benzene. The amount of benzene found in other foods by qualitative and quantitative studies is small. Raw water may be contaminated with benzene. The formation and occurrence of benzene in non-alcoholic … This paper presents a literature review on benzene in foods, including toxicological aspects, occurrence, formation mechanisms, and mitigation measures and analyzes data reporting benzene levels in foods. The lethal oral dose of benzene for humans is 125 mg/kg. Current data, however, is insufficient to indicate reliably whether benzene is formed as result in the interaction of ascorbic and benzoic acids in common products. Benzoates are common preservatives sometimes added to beverages to prevent bacterial growth. Breathing benzene can cause drowsiness, dizziness, tachycardia (rapid heart rate), headache, tremors, confusion, unconsciousness, and death. Long-term exposure to benzene is known to cause anemia and leukemia.The anemia associated with benzene exposure is termed aplastic anemia. Also known as: Benzol, Mineral Naphtha, Phenyl Hydride, Annulene Chemical reference number (CAS): 71-43-2 Benzene is a widely used industrial chemical. Benzene levels are regulated in drinking water nationally and internationally, and in bottled water in the United States, but only informally in soft drinks. Common ones include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and even radon. A 2004 study by the Department of Biochemistry and Food Science of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem described a novel way to use benzoates to prevent food spoilage. Benzene is a colorless liquid with a characteristic odor and is primarily used in the production of polystyrene. The reduction in the concentration of precursors (benzoic acid and ascorbic acid) has been shown to be the primary measure used in the formulation of food and efficiently reduces the levels of contaminants in the final product; replacement of the antimicrobial agent (benzoate) is always an alternative to be considered. Toluene is an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent and natural sources of toluene include crude oil and small quantities it is found in tolu tree.Toluene alternative names include methylbenzene, toluol, anisen, phenyl methane. Uses and effect of benzene-Benzene have been used widely in food industry-The benzene is used as preservative in food or beverages to make last longer-Benzene also is known as carcinogen to human being-Even low levels of benzene exposure can causes blood cancer 1. [10] investigated the influence of accelerated thermal conditions (40°C or 60°C for 24 hours or 40°C for 15 days) and UV light (known wavelength and intensity for 24 hours or seven days) on liquid models containing 0.025% ascorbic acid and 0.04% sodium benzoate or processed beverage samples containing one or more benzene precursors (0.04% sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid are added to cranberry juice). IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), E. S. Johnson, S. Langård, and Y.-S. Lin, “A critique of benzene exposure in the general population,”, T. W. Armstrong, R. T. Zaleski, W. J. Konkel, and T. J. Parkerton, “A tiered approach to assessing children's exposure: a review of methods and data,”, C. Protano, M. Guidotti, P. Manini, M. Petyx, G. La Torre, and M. Vitali, “Benzene exposure in childhood: role of living environments and assessment of available tools,”, F. Fabietti, M. Delise, and A. Piccioli Bocca, “Investigation into the benzene and toluene content of soft drinks,”, F. Fabietti, A. Ambruzzi, M. Delise, and M. R. Sprechini, “Monitoring of the benzene and toluene contents in human milk,”. Toluene is produced during the process of making gasoline and other fuels from crude oil, in making coke from coal, and as a by-product in the manufacture of styrene. Liquid model systems and food samples containing sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid have been used by many studies to verify benzene formation and the influence of intrinsic factors, such as raw materials, pH, concentrations of sodium benzoate, ascorbic acid, and metal ions; chelating action of antioxidants and sugars; and hydroxyl precursors. Health Canada, “Health Risk Assessment—Benzene in Beverages Sampled in 2007,” 2007. It can be found in crude oil products like gasoline, plastics, resins and synthetic fibers. Among the samples not exposed to UV light or heat, only those with cranberry juice contained benzene (2.6 ng/g) after the storage period, possibly because benzoic acid is naturally found in cranberries. Its melting point is 113℃. Moving on, Benzene has a lot of uses in different fields. According to carcinogenicity studies in rats, the reference value of benzene inhalation is 0.01 mg/L for an upper-bound excess lifetime risk of leukemia of 10−5 [38]. Finally data from studies of oral exposure to benzene are scarce and such experimental data is crucial for clarifying the real oral exposure to contaminants and for establishing appropriate safe levels of benzene in foods. Metal ions are important for the formation of hydroxyl radicals. These reducing sugars inhibited benzene formation even more so than sucrose. When a food or beverage containing both potassium benzoate and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is exposed to heat or light, it may form the chemical benzene . Benzene is an organic chemical compound that is clear, colorless and flammable with a sweet odor. After eight days stored in the dark, the solutions had a benzene concentration of 176 ng/g. When a food or beverage containing both potassium benzoate and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is exposed to heat or light, it may form the chemical benzene . Depending on the vegetable matrix and packing material, benzene concentration in samples stored for more than one year can exceed 10 μg/L, which is the maximum acceptable concentration of benzene in water according to the WHO [4]. The site is secure. [18] for pickled vegetables. Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food. However, another substance--one that is not as famous--is an equal danger to our precious health. Benzene may be introduced in foods during processing, in processes like smoking, roasting, and ionizing radiation [17]. Because of the growing demand for processed foods, preservatives have been gaining importance in modern food technology. However, there are other sources which introduce benzene into the home. Benzene formation was greater in samples heated to 40°C than in those exposed to UV or visible light. Not much information is available on smoking, except for a study that found benzene concentrations of 21 and 121 parts per billion (ppb) in smoked meats [8, 18]. Pickled cucumbers stored in plastic bottles had 44.7 μg/L of benzene after 67 weeks, while pickled cucumbers stored in glass bottles had 5.2 μg/L after 27 weeks. A. J. Gava, C. A. Traces of copper and iron may catalyze reactions involving ascorbic and benzoic acids. (iii)Both ascorbic and benzoic acids may occur naturally in juices because they are present in many fruits. In this review, we summarized the benzene formation mechanisms in food and beverages, occurrence, and mitigation measures as well as data analysis of benzene in food (mainly nonalcoholic beverages) to investigate the potential risk of benzene exposure through oral ingestion. Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. [11] studied the effect of sugar on benzene formation in liquid models containing ascorbic acid, benzoate, and three different concentrations of sucrose (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 M). 8. Benzene formation increased linearly with hydrogen peroxyde concentration, until the ascorbic acid concentration was exceeded. Another study found high MoE values, indicating low risk to public health [15]. Higher metal ion concentrations reduced benzene formation. Benzene is among the 20 … The list contains the Limit, Critical, Target and Long-term Values on ambient air for protection of human health and vegetation. Even after all the ascorbic acid had reacted, as seen in pickled caper berries stored in plastic bottles for 26 and 27 weeks, benzene continued to form, indicating that benzoate decarboxylation can be induced by ascorbic acid degradation products during long storage periods at room temperature [30]. It is called benzene. It is formed through both natural processes and human activities, but importantly, high level of exposure to benzene can be quite dangerous. Benzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. They are more vulnerable because they absorb more contaminants than adults exposed to equal concentrations. (vii)Consider removing, reducing, or replacing benzoates with other microbial growth inhibitors. Potential. [32], soft drink samples were incubated at 3 different temperatures (20°C, 45°C, and 90°C) for 21 days prior to the determination of benzene and that resulted in a significant increase in the levels of benzene in samples subjected to temperatures of 45°C (ranging from 5.5 ppb to 6.6 ppb) and 90°C (ranging from 25 ppb to 55.1 ppb) compared to the stored samples 25°C (ranging from 0.7 ppb to 1.5 ppb). From the data presented in the literature and presented here, we conclude that benzene is a chemical hazard in food, although oral exposure is negligible compared to environmental exposure. Benzene is a carcinogenic substance that is present in a great number of modern products and industries. They act through many different mechanisms, such as by scavenging metal ions or reactive species, and by donating a hydrogen atom to stabilize these species. It evaporates quickly when exposed to air. It is a common contaminant in the atmosphere. Federal rules limit benzene levels in drinking water to 5 parts per billion. X.-L. Cao, V. Casey, S. Seaman, B. Tague, and A. Becalski, “Determination of benzene in soft drinks and other beverages by isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,”, P. J. Nyman, G. W. Diachenko, G. A. Perfetti, T. P. Mcneal, M. H. Hiatt, and K. M. Morehouse, “Survey results of benzene in soft drinks and other beverages by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,”. 1 And since humans discovered the many uses of benzene, production levels have skyrocketed. Therefore, light/diet products are more vulnerable to benzene formation. Its density is 1.89 at 66℉. Coloring agents and flavors may contain ascorbates. As its toxicity became obvious, benzene was supplanted by other solvents, especially toluene (methylbenzene), which has similar physical properties but is not as carcinogenic. In 2008, Aprea et al. HYDROQUINONE: Manufactured by oxidizing aniline, it is used extensively as a photographic developer and as a food antioxidant. Mitigating measures applied in foods to decrease the formation of benzene have been effective. It’s one of the most common chemicals produced in the United States with a wide range of uses from plastics to drug manufacturing. Some popular one are mentioned and discussed below. Some benzoates/benzoic acids are present in some fruits and may be added as preservatives, especially in acidic foods with a pH < 4.5, which is usually the case of nonalcoholic beverages [26]. While studying the mechanism of benzene formation in carrot juice for children, Lachenmeier et al. In this case, the addition of chelators, such as EDTA or sodium polyphosphates, may help to minimize benzene formation. The benzene forms from … Its boiling point is 323℃. Benzene can enter foods in many ways: use of contaminated raw materials and packaging materials, storage in contaminated areas, and use of contaminated water for washing or preparing the food. Children are estimated to intake 2.3 times more air and 6.1 times more food than adults per kilogram of body weight [41, 42]. Its melting point is 113℃. HYDROQUINONE: Manufactured by oxidizing aniline, it is used extensively as a photographic developer and as a food antioxidant. A 2004 study by the Department of Biochemistry and Food Science of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem described a novel way to use benzoates to prevent food spoilage. Another important factor is storage time: the formation of benzene is greater when foods are stored for long periods of time under high temperatures [10, 11, 14]. Nowadays, it is often replaced by other chemicals, such as methylbenzene (also known as toluene). However, when the concentration of ascorbic acid exceeds that of benzoic acid, the formation of hydroxyls decreases, since benzoic and ascorbic acids compete. Other Uses. There are several possible sources of benzene in food. Leukimia 2. FSA, “Investigation into the levels of benzene in soft drinks, squashes and flavoured waters June 2006,” 2009. Roughly 99% of the benzene present in the human body was inhaled. Occurrence of Benzene in Foods.. Food Processing. Copyright © 2015 Vânia Paula Salviano dos Santos et al. Benzene is a common industrial chemical used in manufacturing plastics and some types of rubbers, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. The list contains the Limit, Critical, Target and Long-term Values on ambient air for protection of human health and vegetation. Complexation inactivates the catalytic activity of the metal by occupying all of its coordination sites [34]. Nutritive sweeteners such as sugar and high-fructose corn syrup, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and sodium hexametaphosphate may reduce or even inhibit benzene formation, increasing the susceptibility of diet and light nonalcoholic beverages to benzene formation [12, 13]. Nonalcoholic beverages are among the foods with the highest benzene concentrations. Benzene was first isolated by M. Faraday (1825). Hydrogen peroxide is further reduced, a reaction also catalyzed by those metal ions, and may generate hydroxyl radicals [27]. At the beginning of the 1990s, Gardner and Lawrence [9] showed that hydroxyl radicals generated by the reduction of oxygen or hydrogen peroxyde by ascorbic acid, catalyzed by metal ions, could decarboxylate benzoic acid through a pH-dependent reaction, resulting in the benzene formation in foods and beverages. Benzene is a widely used industrial chemical and is a major part of gasoline. It is highly toxic and is a known carcinogen. Optimal benzene formation occurred in the presence of 1.0 mM CuSO4 and 0.05 mM FeSO4. Benzene also has household uses too, but the extent of its use is limited due to its toxic and carcinogenic nature. [37] used the margin of exposure (MoE) to calculate the exposure of children to benzene in carrot juice and found that there was no reason to avoid the occasional consumption of this beverage; however, one must bear in mind that this is not the only source of benzene exposure and that benzene tends to accumulate in the human body. Ions are important for the formation of free radicals C 6 H 6 Cl 6 conditions since strong light high., UV radiation, and pesticides their greater solubility in normal temperatures [ 25 ] that are! Such as volcanoes and forest fires, but most exposure to benzene formation,..., Critical benzene concentrations optimal benzene formation of products containing benzene are more vulnerable to benzene is formed through natural... 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