At the beginning of the third century, Caracalla granted the city a third neocorate, but the decline had already set in. The majority of the surviving structure derives from a reconstruction of the temple which probably took place under Caracalla, or perhaps under Hadrian.[73]. [67], The well-preserved Theatre of Pergamon [de] dates from the Hellenistic period and had space for around 10,000 people, in 78 rows of seats. Pergamon or Pergamum (/ˈpɜːrɡəmən/ or /ˈpɜːrɡəmɒn/; Ancient Greek: Πέργαμον), also referred to by its modern Greek form Pergamos (Greek: Πέργαμος)[a][1], was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Mysia. Pliny the Elder refers to the city as the most important in the province[18] and the local aristocracy continued to reach the highest circles of power in the 1st century AD, like Aulus Julius Quadratus who was consul in 94 and 105. Under Attalus I (241–197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars. This Roman new city was able to expand without any city walls constraining it because of the absence of external threats. Pergamon was also a flourishing center for the production of parchment (the word itself, a corruption of pergamenos, meaning "from Pergamon"), which had been used in Asia Minor long before the rise of the city. In the city of Alexandria, the population was relatively homogeneous. Pergamon still remained a famous city and the noteworthy luxuries of Lucullus included imported wares from the city, which continued to be the site of a conventus (regional assembly). The location of the library building is not certain. The sanctuary was entered through a Propylon from the east, which led to a courtyard surrounded by stoas on three sides. Additional theatres were built in the Roman period, one in the Roman new city and the other in the sanctuary of Asclepius. [19][20] Under Isaac II Angelos (r. 1185–1195), the local see was promoted to a metropolitan bishopric, having previously been a suffragan diocese of the Metropolis of Ephesus.[20]. Its position was impressive It was built on a tall conical hill which dominated the valley of the River Caicus It was a Doric tetrastyle prostyle temple, with three triglyphs and metopes for each span in the entablature. Galen, the most famous physician of antiquity aside from Hippocrates, was born at Pergamon and received his early training at the Asclepeion. Mithridates VI was celebrated in the city as a new Pergamus. In general, therefore, there are large, broad streets (plateiai) and small, narrow connecting streets (stenopoi). The acropolis rises 1300 feet above the lower city located on the plain of the Caicus … Today ancient Pergamum is known as Bergama, Turkey. The city of Pergamum can be described as: the most important city in the Attalid Kingdom One of the goals of Hellenistic philosophy was ataraxia,which can … For the construction under Eumenes II, a city block of 35 x 45 m can be reconstructed, subject to significant variation as a result of the terrain. Other notable structures still in existence on the upper part of the Acropolis include: The site is today easily accessible by the Bergama Acropolis Gondola from the base station in northeastern Bergama. Hadrian raised the city to the rank of metropolis in 123 and thereby elevated it above its local rivals, Ephesus and Smyrna. [14] The two brothers Eumenes II and Attalus II displayed the most distinctive trait of the Attalids: a pronounced sense of family without rivalry or intrigue - rare amongst the Hellenistic dynasties. This letter pictures a church married to the world rather than to Christ. The kings after Attalus I collected many works of art from Greece to adorn the city’s temples and courtyards, supplementing the many works of sculpture, painting, and decoration commissioned from resident artists. : Volume XI 2: Oskar Ziegenaus, Gioia de Luca: Volume XIV: Doris Pinkwart, Wolf Stammnitz. [53], The 80 m long and 55 m wide 'Lower Agora' was built under Eumenes II and was not significantly altered until Late Antiquity. Volume X: Ákos von Szalay – Erich Boehringer et al. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership - Now 30% off. [48] With progressive development of the open space, these buildings were demolished, while the Upper Agora itself took on a more strongly commercial function, while still a special space as a result of the temple of Zeus. After the First World War the Bergama Museum was opened, which has received all finds discovered since then. In the east part of the terrace there was a small prostyle temple in the Corinthian order. [10] Only with Alexander the Great was Pergamon and the surrounding area removed from Persian control. As a result of this short but intensive investigation, two fragments of a great frieze were discovered and transported to Berlin for detailed analysis, where they received some interest, but not a lot. Pergamum was a center for the worship of Dionysus, Zeus, and other pagan gods. Epigraphic documents survive showing how the Attalids supported the growth of towns by sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. The message to the Pergamene church was from the Lord Jesus Christ, specifically addressed to the “angel” (or “messenger”) of the church: “And to the angel of the church in Pergamum write: ‘These are the words of him who has the … [37], In the late 18th century, these visits were reinforced by a scholarly (especially ancient historical) desire for research, epitomised by Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier, a traveller in Asia Minor and French ambassador to the Sublime Porte in Istanbul from 1784 to 1791. A marble stage building was only built in the 1st century BC. [44] When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC, he bequeathed the whole of Pergamon to Rome. [55] The whole market area extended over two levels with a large columned hall in the centre, which contained small shop spaces and miscellaneous rooms. The base of the cult image inside the cella supported three cult statues. As a result of these efforts, Carl Humann, who had been carrying out low-level excavations at Pergamon for the previous few years and had discovered for example the architrave inscription of the Temple of Demeter in 1875, was entrusted with carry out work in the area of the altar of Zeus in 1878, where he continued to work until 1886. The Attalids became some of the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. Further Roman baths were constructed to the west of the Ionic temple.[83]. To the north, the area was closed off by a high stoa, while on the west and east sides it was surrounded by simple ashlar walls, until further stoas were inserted in Hadrian's reign. This complex is identified as a palaestra and had a theatre-shaped lecture hall beyond the northern stoa, which is probably of Roman date and a large banquet hall in the centre. The city is centered around a 335-metre-high (1,099 ft) mesa of andesite which formed its acropolis. Coming from the Upper market, one could enter this from a tower-building at the south end. Pergamos was situated about 100 miles north of Ephesus and boasted a population of around 250,000. The balustrade of the upper level of the north and east stoas was decorated with reliefs depicting weapons which commemorated Eumenes II's military victory. During the Hellenistic period, it became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon under the Attalid dynasty in 281–133 BC, who transformed it into one of the major cultural centres of the Greek world. [30], However, for the Attalids, it was apparently the genealogical connection to Heracles that was crucial, since all the other Hellenistic dynasties had long established such links:[31] the Ptolemies derived themselves directly from Heracles,[32] the Antigonids inserted Heracles into their family tree in the reign of Philip V at the end of the 3rd century BC at the latest,[33] and the Seleucids claimed descent from Heracles' brother Apollo. Theatre specifications and virtual reality tour of theatre, "The Seductive Elegance and Startling Cruelty of Greece's Baroque Age: Power, Pathos and Prestige in Pergamon and Other Hellenistic Kingdoms", Chelae on the Asian coast of the Bosphorus, Chelae on the European coast of the Bosphorus,, Ancient Greek archaeological sites in Turkey, Archaeological sites in the Aegean Region, Buildings and structures in İzmir Province, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Articles incorporating text from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Articles with Ancient Greek-language sources (grc), Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape. As a result of this, the streets had to turn hairpin corners, so that the hill could be climbed as comfortably and quickly as possible. After this, Pergamon lost its privileged status with the Romans and was awarded no further territory by them. ", W. Dörpfeld, "Die Arbeiten zu Pergamon 1901–1902. The archaeological reports from Pergamon are published in German as Altertümer von Pergamon (de Gruyter, Berlin). The temple itself was a Corinthian peripteros temple, about 18 metres wide with 6 columns on the short sides and 9 columns on the long sides, and two rows of columns in antis. Updates? ), Klaus Rheidt, "Die Obere Agora. History: Pergamos, to which the ancient writers also gave the neuter form of the name, was a city of Mysia of the ancient Roman province of Asia, in the Caicus valley, 3 miles from the river, and about 15 miles from the sea. This terrace had no space for the circular orchestra which was normal in a Greek theatre, so only a wooden stage building was built which could be taken down when there was no performance taking place. On its north side there was a two-story hall. "The Library of Pergamon as a Classical Model," in Helmut Koester, ed., Nagy, Gregory (2007). PERGAMOS; PERGAMUM. Lysimachus, King of Thrace, took possession in 301 BC, but soon after his lieutenant Philetaerus enlarged the town, the kingdom of Thrace collapsed in 281 BC and Philetaerus became an independent ruler, founding the Attalid dynasty. Since the 19th century excavations, it has generally been identified with an annex of the northern stoa of the sanctuary of Athena in the Upper Citadel, which was built by Eumenes II. In particular, after the Battle of Sardis in 261 BC against Antiochus I, Eumenes was able to appropriate the area down to the coast and some way inland. “I know where you dwell,” said Jesus, “where Satan’s throne is” (Rev. [19] In AD 663/4, Pergamon was captured by raiding Arabs for the first time. Their significance for architectural history lies in the form of the last kilometres from the mountains through a 200-metre-deep (660 ft) valley to the Akropolis. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The members of the Pergamene aristocracy, especially Diodorus Pasparus in the 70s BC, used their own possessions to maintain good relationships with Rome, by acting as donors for the development of city. It had formal autonomy under the Attalids, who, however, interfered in most aspects of civic government. Telephus refused to participate in the Trojan War, but his son Eurypylus fought on the side of the Trojans. 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