Silver birch wine is still produced by Highland Wineries in Inverness, a crisp and fruity summer wine much sought after by aficionados. [25] The removal of bark was at one time so widespread that Carl Linnaeus expressed his concern for the survival of the woodlands. I have 2 Silver birch trees side by side one has the bumps the other does not have bumps and looks a lot healthier than the with the bumps/pimple like bumps. Its light seeds are easily blown by the wind and it is a pioneer species, one of the first trees to sprout on bare land or after a forest fire. [9], B. pendula is considered a species of least concern by the IUCN Red List. A troublesome pest for a birch tree is the Birch Leaf Miner (Fenusa pusilla). The silver birch is a hardy tree, a pioneer species, and one of the first trees to appear on bare or fire-swept land. The leaf base of silver birch is usually a right angle to the stalk, while for downy birches, it is rounded. Silver Birch Holden Park - 0.07 mi / 0.12 km Tarrant Park - 4.68 mi / 7.52 km Nugget Lake County Park Pierce County Park - 11.43 mi / 18.40 km Nelsons Landing RV Park - 12.52 mi / 20.14 km Lake Pepin Campground - 12.55 mi / 20.20 km Maiden Rock Village Park - 14.20 mi / 22.84 km Stockholm City Park - 14.27 mi / 22.96 km. [11] Other synonyms include:[11][14], The silver birch has an open canopy which allows plenty of light to reach the ground. The silver birch has pointed, triangular leaves. Birch trees, found throughout Canada and temperate regions of the United States, are graceful trees known for their beautiful white bark. The lifespan of a paper birch in the wild is between 80 and 140 years. There are four silver birch trees in Warwick Gardens, standing majestically near the railway line and flanked by a hornbeam and a red horse chestnut tree. In midsummer, the female catkins mature and the male catkins expand and release pollen, and wind pollination takes place. [20] This disease also affects B. pubescens and in 2000 was reported at many of the sites planted with birch in Scotland during the 1990s. In Scandinavia and other regions of northern Europe, it is grown for forest products such as lumber and pulp, as well as for aesthetic purposes and ecosystem services. All parts of the silver birch can be used as a detoxifier and tonic for … The twigs are slender and often pendulous and the leaves are roughly triangular with doubly serrate margins and turn yellow in autumn before they fall. Small shrubs that grow on the forest floor include blaeberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea). 'Youngii' has dense, twiggy, weeping growth with no central leader and requires being grafted onto a standard stem of normal silver birch. You want to keep you trees healthy and well-watered. The buds are small and sticky, and development is sympodial - the terminal bud dies away and growth continues from a lateral bud. Silver Birch Botanical Description: Silver Birch Trees are fast growing, attractive trees. They are sticky with resin at first, but this dries as they age, leaving small, white scales. Advertise The bark on the trunk and branches is golden-brown at first, but later this turns to white as a result of papery tissue developing on the surface and peeling off in flakes, in a similar manner to the closely related paper birch (B. papyrifera). The adult is a copper/bronze colored slender beetle. Birds found in birch woodland include the chaffinch, tree pipit, willow warbler, nightingale, robin, woodcock, redpoll, and green woodpecker. In terms of genetic structure, the trees are quite different, but do, however, occasionally hybridise. [6], Several varieties of B. pendula are no longer accepted, including B. pendula var. [4], Silver birch wood is pale in colour with no distinct heartwood and is used in making furniture, plywood, veneers, parquet blocks, skis, and kitchen utensils, and in turnery. [19] Birch dieback disease can affect planted trees, while naturally regenerated trees seem less susceptible. Its bark was traditionally used for tanning leather, the spray for thatching and bedding, and the sap fermented into Birch wine. [24] Silver birch is often planted in parks and gardens, grown for its white bark and gracefully drooping shoots, sometimes even in warmer-than-optimum places such as Los Angeles and Sydney. [9] It is naturalised and locally invasive in parts of Canada. [6] Borers: Wood-boring insect larvae are a big concern for any tree, but particularly for Birch trees. Once these symptoms are visible, the tree will continue to decline, even if treated. Hybrids between the two are known, but are very rare, and being triploid, are sterile. The dead twigs are also useful as kindling for outdoor fires. carelica, fontqueri, laciniata, lapponica, meridionalis, microlepis, and parvibracteata, as well as forms Betula pendula f. bircalensis, crispa, and palmeri. The tree also has a resident distinct looking bug/beetle I’ve only seen one or two. With their beauty comes susceptibility to aphids. The cultivars marked agm above have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. It is planted decoratively in parks and gardens and is used for forest products such as joinery timber, firewood, tanning, racecourse jumps, and brooms. You can buy lady bug cultures from gardening supply stores, and they can be quite effective in controlling the pests. Many species of birds and animals are found in birch woodland, the tree supports a wide range of insects and the light shade it casts allows shrubby and other plants to grow beneath its canopy. The thin sheets of bark that peel off young wood contain a waxy resin and are easy to ignite even when wet. Registered charity number 207238. The species is native to this continent. [26], Birch brushwood is used for racecourse jumps and besom brooms. [5] Some shoots are long and bear the male catkins at the tip, while others are short and bear female catkins. [27] Also present in the bark are other triterpene substances which have been used in laboratory research to identify its possible biological properties. It is sometimes used as a pioneer and nurse tree elsewhere. [1] The synonym Betula oycowiensis (as B. oycoviensis) was previously listed on the Red List as vulnerable,[22] though it is now considered a synonym of B. pendula subsp. Their trunks are pale in colour with black notches that create deep, diamond shaped fissures along the white bark. It slowly migrated and is now found in abundance as far south as Klamath Falls, according to Many North American texts treat the two species as conspecific (and cause confusion by combining the downy birch's alternative vernacular name 'white birch', with the scientific name B. pendula of the other species), but they are regarded as distinct species throughout Europe. The tell-tale sign of a dying birch tree is the wilting and dying of foliage from the crown, or top of the tree, along with D-shaped insect exit holes in the bark. It is also distinguished cytologically, silver birch being diploid (with two sets of chromosomes), whereas downy birch is tetraploid (four sets of chromosomes). Sometimes called birch bracket, and known to scientists as Fomitopsis betulina, the polypore is a … Damaged birch trees pose a hazard because they are susceptible to dropping branches. "Lack of Evidence for Impact of the European White Birch, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T194831A2363997.en, "HOSTS – a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants", "Species richness of insects and mites on trees: expanding Southwood", International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, "Suomen kansallistunnukset (Finland's national emblems)", "Perinteinen saunavihta (Traditional sauna vihta)". This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 18:23. Yet, downy birches are characterised by hairy leaves and young shoots, whereas the same parts on silver birch are hairless. Birch Leafminer The larvae of the birch leafminer burrows into the leaves of the silver birch tree looking for food. There are four silver birch trees in Warwick Gardens, standing majestically near the railway line and flanked by a hornbeam and a red horse chestnut tree. The flowers are catkins and the light, winged seeds get widely scattered by the wind. Hazel is a small tree of woodlands, grasslands and gardens that is regularly coppiced - the practice of cutting the stems of a tree to…, Our largest shieldbug, the red-and-green hawthorn shieldbug can be seen in gardens, parks and woodlands, feeding on hawthorn, rowan and…, Flower-rich grasslands, once a part of every farm, are part of our culture. [7] In the southern parts of its range, it is mainly found in mountainous regions. Like the lethal bronze birch borer, it is the larvae of the birch leaf miner which causes damage by burrowing into birch leaves in search of nutrients. [8], The branches of the silver birch often have tangled masses of twigs known as witch's brooms growing among them, caused by the fungus Taphrina betulina. It needs plenty of light and does best on dry, acid soils and is found on heathland, mountainsides, and clinging to crags. The bark remains smooth until the tree gets quite large, but in older trees, the bark thickens, becoming irregular, dark, and rugged. [25], The outer part of the bark contains up to 20% betulin. Disease is bad news for pruning wounds because it can quickly spread throughout the tree, often with disastrous results. [4][6], Silver birch can easily be confused with the similar downy birch (Betula pubescens). The silver birch tree (Betula pendula) is also known as white birch, and it is native to the European continent. Cultivated paper birches have a much shorter life if they are grown in the home landscape. But buying more may help the situation! [1], The silver birch is Finland's national tree. But closer examination of the flanks will show its distinctive black-and-cream bands; the flanks of the Birch shield bug are pale green. The first sign of an infestation is when green spots appear on the leaves in late spring or early summer. Their glands release a smell of rotting rubbish as a defensive mechanism to ward off predators. The Wildlife Trusts is a movement made up of 46 Wildlife Trusts: independent charities with a shared mission. [10], Three subspecies of silver birch are accepted:[11][1], B. pendula is distinguished from the related B. pubescens, the other common European birch, in having hairless, warty shoots (hairy and without warts in downy birch), more triangular leaves with double serration on the margins (more ovoid and with single serrations in downy birch), and whiter bark often with scattered black fissures (greyer, less fissured, in downy birch). The Bronze Birch Borer is a wood boring beetle, common across the northern half of the United States, which attacks all birch species. Educational videos on nature (Silver Birch with Shield bug - June 2017) by Exeter Trees. Silver birch is a quick-growing, deciduous tree that can reach heights of 65 feet. The small, 1- to 2-mm winged seeds ripen in late summer on pendulous, cylindrical catkins 2 to 4 cm (0.8 to 1.6 in) long and 7 mm (0.3 in) broad. "Silver Birch" redirects here. The tree likes Sun to half-shade at the location and the soil should be sandy to loamy, dry - moist. [4], The leaves have short, slender stalks and are 3 to 7 cm (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, triangular with broad, untoothed, wedge-shaped bases, slender pointed tips, and coarsely double-toothed, serrated margins. As they are shallow-rooted, they may require water during dry periods. [6] In addition to mycorrhiza, the presence of microfauna in the soil assists the growth of the tree, as it enhances the mobilization of nutrients. It will light when it’s damp because its natural oils are highly flammable. Slabs of bark are used for making roof shingles and strips are used for handicrafts such as wooden footwear and small containers. The silver birch’s usefulness doesn’t end with the timber. The bark of silver birch can be used as a diuretic and mild laxative. "They're popular here in the South because they're native, grow fast, develop handsome flaking bark, and don't fall victim to all the borers, bugs, and diseases other birches do. [8] It has been introduced into North America, where it is known as the European white birch, and is considered invasive in the states of Kentucky, Maryland, Washington, and Wisconsin. In the spring, large quantities of sap rise up the trunk and this can be tapped. CORVALLIS, Ore. – A voracious insect – the bronze birch borer – is picking off beloved birch trees throughout Oregon. The foliage is a pale to medium green and turns yellow early in the autumn before the leaves fall. Fortunately, there are methods of removing aphids from birch … The distinctive white bark punctuated with lichen clad fissures provide an assault course for insects, complete with nooks and crannies to hide in. River birch (Betula nigra) belongs in the category, "Beautiful Trees for Someone Else's Yard. [citation needed]. They grow best in full sun planted in deep, well-drained soil.[29]. I’ve included a photo of the bug. This allows a variety of mosses, grasses, and flowering plants to grow beneath, which in turn attract insects. The species is monoecious with male and female catkins found on the same tree. The silver birch is a medium-sized deciduous tree that owes its common name to the white peeling bark on the trunk. [28], Successful birch cultivation requires a climate cool enough for at least the occasional winter snowfall. It makes a good firewood, but is quickly consumed by the flames. Susceptible birch species include Jacquemontii birch, Whitebarked Himalayan birch (Betula jacquemontii), European white birch, silver birch (B. pendula), European white weeping birch, Young's weeping birch (B. pendula 'Youngii'), and ornamental cutleaf varieties of birch. Various parts of the tree are used in traditional medicine and the bark contains triterpenes, which have been shown to have medicinal properties. 0:28. Some insecticides will combat the insects most notorious for attacking birch … Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch, is a medium-sized deciduous tree, which is classified under Betulaceae family. [18] In Germany, almost 500 species of insects have been found on silver and downy birch including 106 beetles and 105 lepidopterans, with 133 insect species feeding almost exclusively on birch. The leaves are ovoid and the flowers are yellow. The tree can also be found in more temperate regions of Australia. This tree commonly grows with the mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria in a mutualistic relationship. It contains around 1% sugars and can be used in a similar way to maple syrup, being drunk fresh, concentrated by evaporation, or fermented into a "wine". CORVALLIS, Ore. - A voracious insect - the bronze birch borer - is picking off beloved birch trees throughout Oregon. Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch, warty birch, European white birch, or East Asian white birch, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia, though in southern Europe, it is only found at higher altitudes. Adults hibernate over winter, emerging in spring to lay their eggs. The Birch is botanically called Betula pendula. 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 12 13 × Quantity-+ Buy It Now Add to Wishlist. This applies particularly to acidic or nutrient-poor soils. Sap can be extremely dangerous for trees as it attracts bugs which bring disease and also lay their eggs around the pruning wounds. The real difference, however, can be seen in their behaviour. Bu, overwatering is just as much of a problem as under-watering a tree. For the racehorse, see, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T62535A3115662.en. As its name suggests, the birch shieldbug can be found feeding on silver birch, and sometimes hazel, in mixed woodland. [21] In the United States, the wood is attacked by the bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius), an insect pest to which it has no natural resistance. Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch, warty birch, European white birch,[2] or East Asian white birch,[3] is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia, though in southern Europe, it is only found at higher altitudes. Birch trees are popular additions to landscaped yards. White birch and paper birch grow naturally… [4] Its tolerance to pollution make it suitable for planting in industrial areas and exposed sites. Its range extends into Siberia, China, and southwest Asia in the mountains of northern Turkey, the Caucasus, and northern Iran. That fungus is the same one you can see growing on birch trees today: the birch polypore. It has been introduced into North America, where it is known as the European white birch, and is considered invasive in some states in the United States and parts of Canada. Common for many years in Eastern Oregon, the hard-to-control beetle first showed up west of the Cascades in 2003 in Portland, where it has killed hundreds of trees. The distinctive white bark punctuated with lichen clad fissures provide an assault course for insects, complete with nooks and crannies to hide in. The seeds are very numerous and are separated by scales, and when ripe, the whole catkin disintegrates and the seeds are spread widely by the wind. Young branches have whitish resin warts and the twigs are slender, hairless, and often pendulous. The immature male catkins are present during the winter, but the female catkins develop in the spring, soon after the leaves unfurl. [23] Leafy, fragrant boughs of silver birch (called vihta or vasta) are used to gently beat oneself in the Finnish sauna culture. The larvae, which does the damage, are unseen, feeding on the vascular tissue under the bark. "Identification and isolation of pharmacologically active triterpenes in Betuale cortex, European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Betula_pendula&oldid=997257706, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Over-watering restricts how much water that a tree receives since it fills up all the air pores in the soil. Adult wasps lay eggs in leaf litter on the ground that hatch into foliage-eating larvae. Other mycorrhizal associates include Leccinum scabrum and Cantharellus cibarius. Our commitment to Equality, Diversity & Inclusion (EDI), Different types of protected wildlife sites. Birch bark is one of the best types of bark you can use to start a fire. pendula. Their characteristic peeling bark and the paper-thin, tear-dropped leaves help to make birch trees one of the most beloved trees in America. It’s … [5], The silver birch grows naturally from western Europe eastwards to Kazakhstan, the Sakha Republic in Siberia, Mongolia, and the Xinjiang province in China, and southwards to the mountains of the Caucasus and northern Iran, Iraq, and Turkey. [17], The larvae of a large number of species of butterflies, moths, and other insects feed on the leaves and other parts of the silver birch. The spots change to unsightly brown patches. If you have aphids on your plants, you will often find naturally occurring lady bug beetles and their larvae—which look like tiny gila monster lizards—hanging around, feeding on them. Its range extends into Siberia, China, and southwest Asia in the mountains of northern Turkey, the Caucasus, and northern Iran. Paper birch trees (Betula papyrafera), also known as white birch or silver birch, are popular garden trees. The plant is native to Europe where it typically occurs in wood margins, heaths, hills and slopes, and its distribution extends into Siberia, Asia Minor, especially in northern Turkey, to the Caucasus and northern Iran. The silver birch is one of the most prolific bleeders of sap on waking from winter dormancy. The bugs ruin fruit crops and invade homes. Silver birch also demands slightly more summer warmth than does downy birch, which is significant in the cooler parts of Europe. The silver birch typically reaches 15 to 25 m (49 to 82 ft) tall (exceptionally up to 31 m (102 ft)),[4] with a slender trunk usually under 40 cm (16 in) diameter. … [4] Historically, the bark was used for tanning. They are also susceptible to a variety of insects, some of which can kill a tree. Silver birch (Betula pendula) - in the High Street - June 2017 by Exeter Trees. Birch leafminers are the larvae of tiny wasps called black sawflies. The edge of the leaf is doubly toothed (unlike the downy birch which is singly toothed). The Silver birch is the foodplant for two species of shield bug: the Birch shield bug and the Parent bug, both of which can both be found feeding on the catkins in late summer. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be 5 - 25 m (16 - 82 ft) high. Most have developed alongside humans because of livestock…, The Wildlife Trusts: Protecting Wildlife for the Future. [1][11] B. szaferi was previously considered extinct in the wild on the Red List, but is now considered a form of B. pendula with the presence of a mutant gene, causing it to grow weakly and fruit heavily. Old trees are often killed by the decay fungus Piptoporus betulinus and fallen branches rot rapidly on the forest floor. It is also native to northern Morocco and has become naturalised in some other parts of the world. Largely restricted to Silver birch trees, the peculiar Parent bug looks much like the Birch shield bug at first glance. Flowering plants often found in birch woods include primrose (Primula vulgaris), violet (Viola riviniana), bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta), wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), and wood sorrel (Oxalis acetosella). [13] The two have differences in habitat requirements, with silver birch found mainly on dry, sandy soils, and downy birch more common on wet, poorly drained sites such as clay soils and peat bogs. SILVER BIRCH/JUNE BUG Size. Scientific name: Elasmostethus interstinctus As its name suggests, the birch As under-watering a tree and exposed sites a quick-growing, silver birch bugs tree, is... The winter, emerging in spring to lay their eggs, white scales pale to medium green and turns early... On the forest floor maint: multiple names: authors List (, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T62535A3115662.en regions... 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Fungus is the same parts on silver birch can easily be confused with the timber young shoots whereas... Are quite Different, but particularly for birch trees are fast growing, attractive trees release pollen and... Characterised by hairy leaves and young shoots, whereas the same tree resin and. Medium green and turns yellow early in the spring, large quantities of sap rise up the trunk and can. The downy birch ( Betula pendula, commonly known as white birch are... 25 ], the silver birch, and development is sympodial - the terminal bud dies away growth! In traditional medicine and the male catkins expand and release pollen, and southwest in! Dangerous for trees as it attracts bugs which bring disease and also lay their eggs hide in any tree which! Trees seem less susceptible late spring or early summer diuretic and mild laxative,. Its name suggests, the Caucasus, and they can be heated and the resin is an excellent glue. 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